Williamstown is situated among the Taconic Mountain range, which has an abundance of fresh water in the form of rivers, brooks, springs, and lakes, and a lush green landscape that sits above a large aquifer. Furthermore, weather patterns and vegetation in the mountainous region provide for a healthy hydrological system.
The town’s water is sourced from three deep ground water wells, all of which are confined artesian aquifers, meaning they have an impermeable layer of clay and silt both above and below the water aquifer and are thus under immense pressure that makes it easy to extract the water. The aquifer is recharged by water runoff from melting snow on the Berkshire Mountains, which seeps into the ground to the aquifer. Prior to 1840, when the confined wells were put into use, Native Americans and European settlers used surface water from streams, lakes, springs, and shallow dug wells.
Within the boundaries of Williamstown, the Green River and Hoosic River make for a popular recreational spot in the summer and late spring for students and local residents.